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My solution to Advent of Code 2020’s Day 4 challenge, in Python

Welcome to another installment in my Advent of Code 2020 series, where I present my solutions to this year’s Advent of Code challenges!

In this installment, I share my Python solution to Day 4 of Advent of Code, a.k.a. “The Toboggan Puzzle”.

Spoiler alert!

Please be warned: If you want to try solving the challenge on your own and without any help, stop reading now! The remainder of this post will be all about my solution to both parts of the Day 4 challenge.

The Day 4 challenge, part one

The challenge

Here’s the text from part one of the challenge:

You arrive at the airport only to realize that you grabbed your North Pole Credentials instead of your passport. While these documents are extremely similar, North Pole Credentials aren’t issued by a country and therefore aren’t actually valid documentation for travel in most of the world.

It seems like you’re not the only one having problems, though; a very long line has formed for the automatic passport scanners, and the delay could upset your travel itinerary.

Due to some questionable network security, you realize you might be able to solve both of these problems at the same time.

The automatic passport scanners are slow because they’re having trouble detecting which passports have all required fields. The expected fields are as follows:

  • byr (Birth Year)
  • iyr (Issue Year)
  • eyr (Expiration Year)
  • hgt (Height)
  • hcl (Hair Color)
  • ecl (Eye Color)
  • pid (Passport ID)
  • cid (Country ID)

Passport data is validated in batch files (your puzzle input). Each passport is represented as a sequence of key:value pairs separated by spaces or newlines. Passports are separated by blank lines.

Here is an example batch file containing four passports:

The first passport is valid – all eight fields are present. The second passport is invalid – it is missing hgt (the Height field).

The third passport is interesting; the only missing field is cid, so it looks like data from North Pole Credentials, not a passport at all! Surely, nobody would mind if you made the system temporarily ignore missing cid fields. Treat this “passport” as valid.

The fourth passport is missing two fields, cid and byr. Missing cid is fine, but missing any other field is not, so this passport is invalid.

According to the above rules, your improved system would report 2 valid passports.

Count the number of valid passports – those that have all required fields. Treat cid as optional. In your batch file, how many passports are valid?

Importing the data

Every Advent of Code participant gets their own set of data. I copied my data and went through my usual process of bringing it into Python. This involves pasting it into a triple-quoted string and assigning it to the variable raw_input.

I then split() the string into a list, split_input, using two newline characters as the delimiter:

Here’s a sample of the result:

At this point, each item in the list had its individual components delimited by a mix of spaces and newlines. I used this line of code to convert and newlines to spaces:

Here’s a sample of the result:

I now had an list of single-line strings, each one representing a passport, with each passport’s information delimited by spaces.

My next step was to split() each passport string into a list:

The result was a master list of password lists. Here’s a sample:

I wanted to convert each password list into a dictionary, so I wrote this function…

…which I then used that ever-so-useful Python tool, the list comprehension:

I now had a list of passport dictionaries:

Strategy

With the input data massaged into a decent data structure, it was time to test the passports to see if they were valid. Valid passports have have all the required keys.

I wrote this function to test the validity of a given passport:

With is_valid_passport() written, I could apply it to every passport by way of a list comprehension:

My result: 228. I entered it into the solution text field, and Advent of Code told me that I was correct! It was time for part two.

The Day 4 challenge, part two

The challenge

Here’s the text of part two:

The line is moving more quickly now, but you overhear airport security talking about how passports with invalid data are getting through. Better add some data validation, quick!

You can continue to ignore the cid field, but each other field has strict rules about what values are valid for automatic validation:

  • byr (Birth Year) – four digits; at least 1920 and at most 2002.
  • iyr (Issue Year) – four digits; at least 2010 and at most 2020.
  • eyr (Expiration Year) – four digits; at least 2020 and at most 2030.
  • hgt (Height) – a number followed by either cm or in:
    • If cm, the number must be at least 150 and at most 193.
    • If in, the number must be at least 59 and at most 76.
  • hcl (Hair Color) – a # followed by exactly six characters 09 or af.
  • ecl (Eye Color) – exactly one of: amb blu brn gry grn hzl oth.
  • pid (Passport ID) – a nine-digit number, including leading zeroes.
  • cid (Country ID) – ignored, missing or not.

Your job is to count the passports where all required fields are both present and valid according to the above rules. Here are some example values:

Here are some invalid passports:

Here are some valid passports:

Count the number of valid passports – those that have all required fields and valid values. Continue to treat cid as optional. In your batch file, how many passports are valid?

Strategy

In part one, it was about testing for the presence of required keys. This time, it was about testing for valid values.

To that end, I wrote this function…

…which I then used in a list comprehension, which served as a filter on the validated passports from part one:

My result was 175, which was correct. Day 4 was done!

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